Stefan Emming and Kate Schroder from the Inflammasome Lab have published a review in Science magazine this month on how "Multiple DNA sensors (TLR9, hnRNP-A2B1, cGAS, and AIM2) in different cellular compartments may allow tiered inflammatory responses according to the threat level."
Emming S & Schroder K. (2019).
Tiered DNA sensors assess threat to tailor responses. Science 27 Sep 2019: Vol. 365, Issue 6460, pp. 1375-1376. Pubmed
Numerous DNA sensors exist in cells to detect viral and microbial infection, as well as nonphysiological cytosolic DNA. These detection systems activate immune signaling pathways to respond to infection, but why are so many DNA sensors needed? In a Perspective, Emming and Schroder propose that DNA sensors, including a newly identified nuclear sensor, function in a tiered system that can adjust the cellular response according to the amount of detected intracellular DNA. Cellular and immune responses can therefore be scaled, from low-level inflammation to immunogenic cell death, according to the threat posed by an infection.
Image: Graphical abstract visualising escalating inflammatory responses to increasing threat levels & Stefan Emming celebrating with the lab, with cake!
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